What Is “ARP” and What Is “ARP Poisoning Attack”

WHAT IS ARP

Summarize, [A]ddress [R]esolution [P]rotocol is a protocol for matching a [I]nternet [P]rotocol Address to physical machine address. Well why needed this protocol let me explain before “how the ARP works ?”. We will examine some photos.

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This photo belongs to me. Now here we go, we have 2 computer (Computer A,Computer B) and these computers some informations(IP,MAC Address). These computers connected with Ethernet. We want send IP Package from Computer A to Computer B. We have IP Package and this package include some informations. These informations Source and Destination. We know source but destination is unknown so Computer A send ARP Request to Computer B. Also this event is called BroadCast.

Now how the arp works ? ARP says something like this “Hi these are my IP Address and MAC Address(192.168.1.1,AAA) and I am looking for IP Address(192.168.1.2). If you know about this IP Address’s MAC Address please reply to me.” and Computer B receive ARP Request and send reply to Computer A, now we know IP Package’s destination. Finally these informations saved ARP Table in Operating System.

If you want to see ARP Table on Linux Distributions.

If you want to see ARP Table on Windows.

WHAT IS ARP POISONING

ARP Poisoning is attack type. Attacker changes targets Media Access Control (MAC) Address and attacker send fake ARP Request and reply. Then ARP Table’s cache full and ARP Table reset own.

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